The End of the Postnational Illusion

April 2017

With the advance of modernization, nationalism was supposed to fade away. Yet everywhere we look, even in advanced democracies, nationalism’s influence seems larger than ever. What did we get wrong?

External Influence and Democratization: The Revenge of Geopolitics

October 2014
Advancing the democratic cause is threatening to autocrats, and they will fight back.

Twenty Years of Postcommunism: Freedom and the State

January 2010

This is a central problem—perhaps the central problem—for classical liberal theory and its crucial distinction between the state of nature and the civil state. Which is better for liberty: nature or the state?

Reading Russia: The Wounds of Lost Empire

April 2009

There is no consensus about the nature of the political system in Moscow today. Yet how one understands the motivations propelling Russian policy abroad depends on how one understands its regime at home.

Debating the Transition Paradigm: The Democratic Path

July 2002

The notion of countries being on the “path to democracy” remains valid unless and until they come up with a systemic alternative to democracy.

Ten Years after the Soviet Breakup: The Impact of Nationalism

October 2001

To grasp what is happening in the former USSR, we must examine the types of nationalism that flourish there.

Books in Review: Nurturing Nationalism

October 2000

A review of Jack Snyder's From Voting to Violence.

The End of Revolution?

January 2000