ELECTION RESULTS (June-September 2002)
Bolivia: In June 30 legislative elections the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR) received 22.5 percent of the vote, the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) and the New Republican Forces won nearly 21 percent each, and the Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) won 16.3 percent. The remainder was split between smaller parties. In presidential elections on the same date, former president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (MNR) finished first with 22.5 percent of the vote, edging out coca farmer Evo Morales (MAS), who won 21 percent. Because no candidate won a majority, the new Congress, in accord with Bolivian electoral law, decided between the two candidates who received the most votes, choosing Sánchez de Lozada as president by a vote of 84 to 43.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Tripresidential elections were scheduled for October 5. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Cameroon: In June 30 elections to the 180-seat unicameral National Assembly, the ruling Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement of President Paul Biya, who has been in power since 1982, won 133 seats. The Social Democratic Front came in second with 21 seats. In light of more than 130 petitions claiming that the ruling party had used undemocratic methods, the Supreme Court ordered fresh polls to take place in nine constituencies on September 15.
Congo-Brazzaville: In the country’s first legislative elections in a decade, held on May 26 and June 23, President Denis Sassou-Nguesso’s Congolese Labor Party won 83 out of 137 seats in the parliament. No other party won more than 4 seats. Fifteen candidates were disqualified for rigging the elections, and fresh polls were to be conducted in districts where voting had been disrupted or prevented by civil turbulence. [End Page 180] Heavy fighting between rebels and government forces reduced voter turnout in some areas to as low as 20-40 percent.
Czech Republic: In elections to the 200-seat Chamber of Deputies held on June 14-15, the Social Democratic Party (CSSD) won 70 seats, while the center-right Civic Democratic Party, led by former prime minister Václav Klaus, took 58. Achieving its best result since the 1989 Velvet Revolution, the Communist Party placed third with 41 seats, surpassing the Coalition of Four, an alliance of the centrist Christian Democrats and the right-wing Freedom Union, which got 31. New prime minister Vladimir Spidla’s government, comprised of the CSSD and the Coalition of Four, will have a precarious 101-seat majority in Parliament. The turnout was only 58 percent, compared with 74 percent in 1998.
Guinea: In June 30 elections to the National Assembly, President Lansana Conté’s ruling Party for Unity and Progress (PUP) won all 38 of the constituency-based seats, as well as 47 out of the 76 seats filled on a proportional basis. Most opposition parties boycotted the elections, claiming that they had been rigged in favor of the ruling party. Of those that did participate, five won seats on the proportional list, led by the Union for Progress and Renewal (20 seats). The elections had been delayed for two years due to fighting along Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone and Liberia. Turnout was estimated at 72 percent.
Macedonia: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for September 15. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Morocco: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for September 27. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Papua New Guinea: In June 15-29 elections to the 109-member unicameral House of Assembly, the National Alliance won 19 seats, the People’s Democratic Movement won 12, the People’s Progress Party obtained 8, the Papua New Guinea United Party gained 6, and the People’s Action Party won 5. Independents won 17 seats, and 19 other parties split the remainder. The new parliament elected as its prime minister the country’s founding father, Sir Michael Somare of the National Alliance. The polls were fraught with violence, allegations of vote-rigging, theft, and the destruction of ballot boxes.
Serbia: Presidential elections were scheduled for September 29. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Slovakia: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for September 20-21. Results will be reported in a future issue. [End Page 181]
UPCOMING ELECTIONS (October 2002-September 2003)
Albania: presidential, December 2002 (latest)
Armenia: presidential/parliamentary March 2003
Bahrain: parliamentary, 24 October 2002
Belize: parliamentary, August 2003
Benin: parliamentary, March 2003
Brazil: presidential/legislative, October 2002
Chad: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Djibouti: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Ecuador: presidential/legislative, October 2002
El Salvador: legislative, March 2003
Equatorial Guinea: parliamentary, January 2003
Estonia: parliamentary, March 2003
Jamaica: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Kiribati: legislative, November/December 2002
Liberia: presidential, July 2003
Madagascar: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Mauritius: presidential, December 2002 (latest)
Mexico: legislative, July 2003
Micronesia: legislative, 4 March 2003; presidential, May 2003
Pakistan: parliamentary, 10 October 2002
Palestinian Authority: presidential/legislative, January 2003
Paraguay: presidential, May 2003
Slovenia: presidential, November 2002
South Korea: presidential, 18 December 2002
Togo: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Trinidad and Tobago: presidential, December 2002 (latest)
Turkey: parliamentary, 3 November 2002 (latest)
Tuvalu: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Yemen: parliamentary, 27 April 2003
Election Watch provides reports of recently decided and upcoming elections in developing nations and the postcommunist world. Elections in nondemocratic nations are included when they exhibit a significant element of genuine competition or, in the case of upcoming elections, when they represent an important test of progress toward democracy. Much of the data for Election Watch is provided by the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES), a private, nonprofit education and research foundation that assists in monitoring, supporting, and strengthening the mechanics of the electoral process worldwide. For additional information, contact: IFES, 1101 15th Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005; (202) 828-8507; www.ifes.org.