ELECTION RESULTS (December 2001-March 2002)
Bahamas: As this issue went to press, parliamentary elections were expected to be held by the end of March. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Chile: In December 16 legislative elections, President Ricardo Lagos’s center-left coalition (the Concertación) won 48 percent of the vote and 62 of the 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Within the Concertación, the Christian Democratic Party received 24 seats and the Party for Democracy received 21. The opposition Alliance for Chile (APC) received 44 percent of the vote and 57 seats within the Chamber of Deputies. Within the APC the Independent Democratic Union received 35 seats and the National Renewal Party received 22. In the Senate, where only half the 38 directly elected seats were at stake, the Concertación lost its one-seat majority, and the body is now split evenly between the two major coalitions.
Colombia: Legislative elections were scheduled for March 10. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Congo-Brazzaville: Presidential elections were scheduled for March 10. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Costa Rica: On February 3, presidential and legislative elections were held. In the presidential contest, Abel Pacheco of incumbent president Miguel Angel Rodríguez’s Christian Social Unity Party (PUSC) won 39 percent of the vote, Rolando Araya of the National Liberation Party (PLN) received 31 percent, and Otton Solis, the candidate of the new Citizens’ Action Party (PAC), gained an unexpected 26 percent. With no candidate receiving the 40 percent required for victory in the first round, the country was scheduled to hold its first presidential runoff on [End Page 180] April 7, the results of which will be reported in a future issue. In elections to the 57-seat Legislative Assembly, the PUSC secured 19 seats; the PLN, 17; the PAC, 14; and the Libertarian Movement Party, 6.
Gabon: In legislative balloting on December 9 and 23, the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) of President Omar Bongo won 85 of the 120 seats in the National Assembly. Independent candidates won in 11 districts, the National Woodcutters Rally (RNB) took 6 seats, and the remainder were won by smaller parties. Some opposition parties boycotted the elections, which were also marked by extremely low turnout in urban areas.
The Gambia: In parliamentary elections held on January 17, President Yahya Jammeh’s Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction (APRC) won 45 of the 48 non-appointed seats in the 53-member National Assembly. Due to a boycott by the opposition United Democratic Party, the APRC ran unopposed in 33 constituencies.
Guinea: General elections, originally scheduled for December 27, have been postponed indefinitely.
Honduras: Elections to the 128-seat National Assembly were held on November 25. The National Party of newly elected president Ricardo Maduro won the most seats, with 61, but fell short of a majority. The Liberal Party, formerly in the majority, secured 55 seats, and smaller parties split the remaining 12.
Madagascar: In first-round presidential balloting held on December 16, independent candidate Marc Ravalomanana won 46 percent, narrowly surpassing incumbent Didier Ratsiraka of the Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution, who received 41 percent. Since neither candidate won the majority required for outright victory, a runoff election was planned. As this issue went to press, however, the runoff had been postponed until March 24 due to continuing unrest. Ravalomanana maintained that he was cheated of an outright victory and declared himself president, to which the government responded by declaring a state of emergency.
São Tomé and Príncipe: Legislative elections were scheduled for March 3. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Singapore: In parliamentary elections held on November 3, the ruling People’s Action Party (PAP) won 82 of the 84 seats in the Parliament. The PAP received 75 percent of the vote, a 10 percent increase from the party’s 1997 vote share. The Workers’ Party and the Singapore Democratic Alliance earned one seat each. Fewer than half of the seats [End Page 181] were contested, and the opposition complained that the electoral process was unfair.
Solomon Islands: In December 5 elections, the People’s Alliance Party (PAP) received 20 of the 50 seats in the National Parliament. The Association of Independent Members received 13 seats, and the Solomon Island Alliance for Change received 12.
Togo: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for March 10. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Trinidad and Tobago: In December 10 parliamentary elections, the ruling United National Congress (UNC) and the People’s National Movement (PNM) evenly split the 36-member House of Representatives. On December 24, President Arthur Robinson appointed PNM leader Patrick Manning prime minister.
Ukraine: Parliamentary elections were scheduled for March 31. Results will be reported in a future issue.
Zambia: In December 27 presidential balloting, Levy Patrick Mwanawasa of incumbent president Frederick Chiluba’s Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) received 29 percent of the vote, defeating Anderson Mazoka of the United Party for National Development (UNPD), who secured 27 percent. In legislative elections on the same day, the MMD won 69 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. The UNPD received 49 seats, while the United National Independence Party—led by Tilyeni Kaunda, son of Zambia’s founding president Kenneth Kaunda—won 13 seats. The legitimacy of the presidential balloting has been questioned by outside observers and opposition parties, and the Zambian Supreme Court is currently considering three opposition petitions.
Zimbabwe: Presidential elections were scheduled for March 9-10. Results will be reported in a future issue.
(April 2002-March 2003)
Algeria: parliamentary, 30 May 2002
Armenia: parliamentary, March 2003
Benin: legislative, March 2003
Bolivia: presidential/legislative, June 2002 [End Page 180]
Bosnia-Herzegovina: tri-presidential, October 2002
Brazil: presidential/legislative, October 2002
Burkina Faso: parliamentary, 28 April 2002
Cameroon: parliamentary, May 2002
Chad: parliamentary, 21 April 2002
Colombia: presidential, 26 May 2002
Congo-Brazzaville: legislative, 12 May and 9 June 2002
Czech Republic: parliamentary, June 2002
Djibouti: parliamentary, 20 December 2002
Dominican Republic: legislative, May 2002
East Timor: presidential, 14 April 2002
Ecuador: presidential/legislative, October 2002
El Salvador: legislative, March 2003
Estonia: parliamentary, March 2003
Hungary: parliamentary, 7 and 21 April 2002
Jamaica: parliamentary, December 2002 (latest)
Jordan: parliamentary, September 2002
Kiribati: legislative, September 2002
Latvia: parliamentary, October 2002 (estimated)
Lesotho: parliamentary, 25 May 2002
Macedonia: parliamentary, April 2002
Madagascar: parliamentary, May 2002
Mali: presidential, 14 April 2002
Micronesia: legislative, March 2003
Morocco: parliamentary, November 2002
Pakistan: parliamentary, 1 October 2002
Papua New Guinea: parliamentary, June 2002
Sierra Leone: presidential/parliamentary, 14 May 2002
Slovakia: parliamentary, September 2002
Slovenia: presidential, November 2002
South Korea: presidential, 18 December 2002
Election Watch provides reports of recently decided and upcoming elections in developing nations and the postcommunist world. Elections in nondemocratic nations are included when they exhibit a significant element of genuine competition or, in the case of upcoming elections, when they represent an important test of progress toward democracy. Much of the data for Election Watch is provided by the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES), a private, nonprofit education and research foundation that assists in monitoring, supporting, and strengthening the mechanics of the electoral process worldwide. For additional information, contact: IFES, 1101 15th Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005; (202) 828-8507; www.ifes.org.