ELECTION RESULTS (June–September 2008)
Angola: In September 5 parliamentary elections, the first since 1992 for the 220-seat National Assembly, President José Eduardo dos Santos’s ruling Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) won 82 percent of the vote, and the opposition National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) won 11 percent. EU election observers concluded that the elections fell short of international standards.
Belarus: Parliamentary elections were scheduled to be held on September 28; results will be reported in a future issue.
Cambodia: In parliamentary elections on July 27 for the 123-seat National Assembly, Prime Minister Hun Sen’s ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) won 58 percent of the vote and 91 seats. The opposition Sam Rainsy Party came in second with 22 percent and 26 seats. Human Rights Watch said that “conditions were not in place for free and fair elections.”
Grenada: In parliamentary elections on July 8 for the 15-seat House of Representatives, the opposition National Democratic Congress, led by Tillman Thomas, won 51 percent and 11 seats. Prime Minister Keith C. Mitchell’s New National Party won 48 percent and 4 seats.
Hong Kong: In elections on September 7 for the Legislative Council, prodemocracy parties won 19 of the 30 popularly elected seats. The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong and other pro-Beijing parties won the remaining 11 seats. Prodemocracy parties now control 23 of the Council’s 60 seats.
Macedonia: Following new elections on June 15 for seats not decided in [End Page 177] the June 1 parliamentary elections, the balance of seats in the 120-seat Assembly is as follows: the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization– Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE) has 53 seats, while the coalition that it is part of, For a Better Macedonia, has 63 seats. The Social Democratic Union of Macedonia has 18 seats, while the coalition that it is part of, A Sun for European Macedonia, has 27 seats. The Democratic Union of Integration has 18 seats; the Democratic Party of Albanians has 11 seats; and the Party for a European Future has 1 seat.
Mongolia: In parliamentary elections on June 29 for the 76-seat State Great Hural, the ruling Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (the successor to the Communist Party) won 39 seats; the Mongolian Democratic Party, led by Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj, won 25 seats; an independent candidate and the Civic Will Party each won one seat; and 10 seats were undecided. Protests after the elections left 5 dead and more than 300 injured. Police detained 710 protesters, and President Nambaryn Enkhbayar declared a national state of emergency, which lasted 4 days.
Rwanda: Parliamentary elections were scheduled to be held on September 15; results will be reported in a future issue.
Swaziland: Parliamentary elections were scheduled to be held on September 19; results will be reported in a future issue.
Vanuatu: Parliamentary elections were held on September 2; results will be reported in a future issue.
Zimbabwe: According to official results for the June 27 presidential runoff, incumbent Robert Mugabe won 86 percent of the vote, but many ballots were spoiled. Mugabe was inaugurated in a quickly organized ceremony approximately an hour after the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission announced the results. First-round leader Morgan Tsvangirai of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) had withdrawn from the race on June 22 in response to violence perpetrated by the government, but his name remained on the ballot because Mugabe said he withdrew too close to the election. See the article by Michael Bratton and Eldred Masunungure on pp. 41–55 above for further details.
UPCOMING ELECTIONS (October 2008–September 2009)
Afghanistan: presidential, September 2009
Albania: parliamentary, June 2009
Algeria: presidential, April 2009 [End Page 178]
Azerbaijan: presidential, 15 October 2008
Bangladesh: parliamentary, December 2008
Bulgaria: parliamentary, June 2009
Congo (Brazzaville): presidential, March 2009
Côte d’Ivoire: presidential/parliamentary, 30 November 2008
El Salvador: presidential/legislative, March 2009
Ghana: presidential/legislative, December 2008
Guinea: parliamentary, December 2008 (tentative)
Guinea-Bissau: parliamentary, 16 November 2008
India: parliamentary, by May 2009
Indonesia: legislative, April 2009
Lithuania: parliamentary, 12 October 2008/presidential, June 2009
Macedonia: presidential, by April 2009
Malawi: presidential/legislative, May 2009
Maldives: presidential, 10 October 2008
Mexico: legislative, 5 July 2009
Micronesia: legislative, March 2009
Mongolia: presidential, May 2009
Panama: presidential/legislative, 3 May 2009
Romania: parliamentary, 28 November 2008
Slovakia: presidential, April 2009
Slovenia: parliamentary, 8 October 2008
South Africa: parliamentary, March 2009
Yemen: parliamentary, April 2009
Zambia: presidential, 30 October 2008
Election Watch provides reports of recently decided and upcoming elections in developing nations and the postcommunist world. Elections in nondemocratic nations are included when they exhibit a significant element of genuine competition or, in the case of upcoming elections, when they represent an important test of progress toward democracy. Some of the data for Election Watch come from IFES, a private, nonprofit education and research foundation that assists in monitoring, supporting, and strengthening the mechanics of the electoral process worldwide. For additional information, visit www.ifes.org. [End Page 179]