History and Memory: The Revolutions of 1989-91

Issue Date July 2001
Volume 12
Issue 3
Page Numbers 5-19
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There has been surprisingly little celebration of the tenth anniversary of the revolutions that brought down communism. The exaggerated hopes of the time have given way to disillusionment, but the real achievements of many of the postcommunist countries should not be discounted.

About the Author

Aleksander Smolar is senior research fellow at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris and chairman of the board of the Stefan Batory Foundation in Warsaw. He served as a political advisor to Polish prime ministers Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Hanna Suchocka.

View all work by Aleksander Smolar