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The vast obstacles to democratic reformism include basic provisions in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic itself.
Volume 14, Issue 1
Despite today’s gridlock, there are grounds for hope in the widespread embrace of democratic ideals by young people.
Volume 18, Issue 4
Observers who focus too much on elections have failed to grasp the maturation of Iranian civil society, even as hard-liners have come to dominate the government.
Volume 20, Issue 3
Legislative elections in the Middle East often become contests over patronage and wind up reinforcing authoritarian regimes.