Robert Klitgaard

Robert Klitgaard is an American who is currently visiting professor of economics at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Formerly a professor at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, he is the author of six books, including Elitism and Meritocracy in Developing Countries (1986), Controlling Corruption (1988), and Tropical Gangsters (1990). He has worked in 22 developing countries. Material in this article is drawn from his book Adjusting to Reality: Beyond State versus Market in Economic Development (1991).